2015年4月22日 星期三

【迷思】空腹跑步更能瘦?

如果您是個有經驗的減重者,應該有聽過空腹運動更能瘦的理論:肚子空空時,身體就被迫要燃燒儲藏的脂肪。所以每個想減重的人都應該把鬧鐘往前調一個小時,趕在早餐前去跑步。如此,就可以讓您燃燒更多脂肪。


恩...理論上應該行得通,但實際上真有那麼簡單?


讓我們來看看別人血淚交織的經驗吧!




空腹運動的理論基礎


首先史考特要帶大家認識一些基礎的生理學:


當我們進食後,身體會釋放胰島素來儲存進入血液的養分。如果各位讀者有印象的話,胰島素還有個惡名昭彰的功效:阻止脂肪釋放與燃燒。




白話來說,身體的邏輯是:既然你都吃了飯,血液中現在滿滿都是養分,幹嘛還要花功夫把脂肪組織裡面的能量抓出來用呢?


在以下的圖中,我們可以看到身體在餐後迅速的將能量來源由脂肪轉移到碳水化合物。

(僅為示意圖,非實際實驗數據)


所以只要空腹去運動,理論上就可以維持身體燃燒脂肪的狀態,讓運動的燃脂效果更好。


理論上如此,但實際上呢?





空腹運動的長期效應


如同之前史考特所說的:人們大部分的時間都不是在運動,絕大部分的熱量消耗也與運動無關。如果只看運動當下,而忽略了一整天的熱量消耗,那是犯了見樹不見林的毛病。




為了測試空腹運動更能減脂的假說,研究者找來20位青春洋溢的女大生,將他們推入火坑以下的魔鬼減肥訓練營:


所有女生的運動與節食課表都一樣,差別僅在於控制組(或說「非」空腹組)在運動前喝下一杯運動飲料,空腹組則要等到運動完才能喝。



請注意,這邊的運動飲料是20公克的乳清蛋白與40公克的麥芽糊精。大家可以把它想成很好吸收的蛋白質加碳水化合物飲品。


(註:這篇採用的最大心跳率公式為 220 - 年齡。也就是說如果您是永遠的18歲,最大心跳率就是永遠的每分鐘202次。)





結果揭曉


經過四周後,兩組都瘦了。不過研究者發現,不管是體重、腰圍、脂肪量、肌肉量、體脂率、還是BMI值。


兩組間通通都沒有差!


儘管空腹跑步能燃燒更多脂肪,「理論上」也能幫助人們減去更多肥肉。但再次的,人體的複雜讓專家們的預測通通摃龜。




失望歸失望,以下幾種解釋值得各位讀者推敲推敲:


  • 空腹跑步時燃燒雖較多脂肪,但休息時身體會儲存更多脂肪來補償。
  • 儘管空腹慢跑燃燒較多脂肪,這些差異尚不足以在四周內產生顯著變化。
  • 空腹運動根本就不能燃燒更多脂肪。






那如果是高強度訓練(HIIT)呢?


本篇研究針對的是原本就有運動習慣,努力節食、慢跑且清純洋溢妖嬌美麗的女大生。如果今天您不是瘦瘦的年輕女性,或是不喜歡慢跑怎麼辦呢?


別擔心,早就有人想到這個問題了。


Gillen等人在2013年讓16位肥胖女性進行六周的高強度間歇式訓練(就是有點像Tabata那樣),這些小胖妹們在腳踏車上全力衝刺60秒後休息60秒,10個循環後收工下班。


完成了18次訓練後,學者宣布:不管你是吃飽運動還是空腹運動,都不會改變高強度訓練的效果。


空腹運動可能真的不如理想中美好!





結語


根據今天的研究,史考特建議大家:


  • 空腹運動或「非」空腹運動都可以幫您減重,而且效果相差不大。
  • 如果空腹運動讓您眼冒金星,那麼吃些點心再戰吧!
  • 如果吃飽運動讓您欲振乏力,那麼就放心空腹運動吧!
  • 能長期配合個人生理、時間、習慣的運動策略,就是一個好的策略。


另外這個研究也點出了一個重要的概念:漂亮的理論未必經得起研究的考驗。


許多時候學者、專家在研究室、紙上、網路上建構出漂亮的理論,告訴大家要怎麼吃、怎麼動才能更健康、更美麗。


儘管這些說法看來論述完整、堅不可破,但人體遠比我們想像的複雜。單一的機制(例如空腹燃脂)往往會被許多其他的生理、心理、社會因素給稀釋、影響,最終的結果往往出人意表。


也因此在「人體試驗」出爐前,再美麗的理論也只能「看看就好」。


膽固醇不能多吃的迷思,不就是一個最好的例子?


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